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Last Updated: February 25, 2016
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· richardgong1987
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Richardgong learning underscorejs

As we know underscorejs is an famous javascript library, underscorejs is a utility-belt javascript library that provides lots of the functional pragramming, underscorejs is easy to use, and easy learn,underscore provides 80-odd functioans that support both the usual funtional suspects:
map, select, invoke- as well as more specialized heplers: function binding, javascript templating, deep equality testing, and so on, it deletates to built-in functions, if present, modern browers will use the native implementations of forEach, map, reduce, filter, every, some, and indexOf.
if you are beginner, the javascript basic knowledge is very very important, if not, that's direct affected you comprehend an libraray,

ok,,le't begin,consider underscorejs source code:

//     Underscore.js 1.5.2
//     http://underscorejs.org
//     (c) 2009-2013 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud and Investigative Reporters & Editors
//     Underscore may be freely distributed under the MIT license.

(function() {

  // Baseline setup
  // --------------

  // Establish the root object, `window` in the browser, or `exports` on the server.
  var root = this;

  // Save the previous value of the `_` variable.
  var previousUnderscore = root._;

  // Establish the object that gets returned to break out of a loop iteration.
  var breaker = {};

  // Save bytes in the minified (but not gzipped) version:
  var ArrayProto = Array.prototype, ObjProto = Object.prototype, FuncProto = Function.prototype;

  // Create quick reference variables for speed access to core prototypes.
  var
    push             = ArrayProto.push,
    slice            = ArrayProto.slice,
    concat           = ArrayProto.concat,
    toString         = ObjProto.toString,
    hasOwnProperty   = ObjProto.hasOwnProperty;

  // All **ECMAScript 5** native function implementations that we hope to use
  // are declared here.
  var
    nativeForEach      = ArrayProto.forEach,
    nativeMap          = ArrayProto.map,
    nativeReduce       = ArrayProto.reduce,
    nativeReduceRight  = ArrayProto.reduceRight,
    nativeFilter       = ArrayProto.filter,
    nativeEvery        = ArrayProto.every,
    nativeSome         = ArrayProto.some,
    nativeIndexOf      = ArrayProto.indexOf,
    nativeLastIndexOf  = ArrayProto.lastIndexOf,
    nativeIsArray      = Array.isArray,
    nativeKeys         = Object.keys,
    nativeBind         = FuncProto.bind;

  // Create a safe reference to the Underscore object for use below.
  var _ = function(obj) {
    if (obj instanceof _) return obj;
    if (!(this instanceof _)) return new _(obj);
    this._wrapped = obj;
  };

  // Export the Underscore object for **Node.js**, with
  // backwards-compatibility for the old `require()` API. If we're in
  // the browser, add `_` as a global object via a string identifier,
  // for Closure Compiler "advanced" mode.
  if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
    if (typeof module !== 'undefined' && module.exports) {
      exports = module.exports = _;
    }
    exports._ = _;
  } else {
    root._ = _;
  }

  // Current version.
  _.VERSION = '1.5.2';

  // Collection Functions
  // --------------------

  // The cornerstone, an `each` implementation, aka `forEach`.
  // Handles objects with the built-in `forEach`, arrays, and raw objects.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `forEach` if available.
  var each = _.each = _.forEach = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    if (obj == null) return;
    if (nativeForEach && obj.forEach === nativeForEach && false) {
      obj.forEach(iterator, context);
    } else if (obj.length === +obj.length) {
      for (var i = 0, length = obj.length; i < length; i++) {
        if (iterator.call(context, obj[i], i, obj) === breaker) return;
      }
    } else {
      var keys = _.keys(obj);
      for (var i = 0, length = keys.length; i < length; i++) {
        if (iterator.call(context, obj[keys[i]], keys[i], obj) === breaker) return;
      }
    }
  };

  // Return the results of applying the iterator to each element.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `map` if available.
  _.map = _.collect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    var results = [];
    if (obj == null) return results;
    if (nativeMap && obj.map === nativeMap) return obj.map(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      results.push(iterator.call(context, value, index, list));
    });
    return results;
  };

  var reduceError = 'Reduce of empty array with no initial value';

  // **Reduce** builds up a single result from a list of values, aka `inject`,
  // or `foldl`. Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduce` if available.
  _.reduce = _.foldl = _.inject = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
    var initial = arguments.length > 2;
    if (obj == null) obj = [];
    if (nativeReduce && obj.reduce === nativeReduce) {
      if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
      return initial ? obj.reduce(iterator, memo) : obj.reduce(iterator);
    }
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (!initial) {
        memo = value;
        initial = true;
      } else {
        memo = iterator.call(context, memo, value, index, list);
      }
    });
    if (!initial) throw new TypeError(reduceError);
    return memo;
  };

  // The right-associative version of reduce, also known as `foldr`.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduceRight` if available.
  _.reduceRight = _.foldr = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
    var initial = arguments.length > 2;
    if (obj == null) obj = [];
    if (nativeReduceRight && obj.reduceRight === nativeReduceRight) {
      if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
      return initial ? obj.reduceRight(iterator, memo) : obj.reduceRight(iterator);
    }
    var length = obj.length;
    if (length !== +length) {
      var keys = _.keys(obj);
      length = keys.length;
    }
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      index = keys ? keys[--length] : --length;
      if (!initial) {
        memo = obj[index];
        initial = true;
      } else {
        memo = iterator.call(context, memo, obj[index], index, list);
      }
    });
    if (!initial) throw new TypeError(reduceError);
    return memo;
  };

  // Return the first value which passes a truth test. Aliased as `detect`.
  _.find = _.detect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    var result;
    any(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) {
        result = value;
        return true;
      }
    });
    return result;
  };

  // Return all the elements that pass a truth test.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `filter` if available.
  // Aliased as `select`.
  _.filter = _.select = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    var results = [];
    if (obj == null) return results;
    if (nativeFilter && obj.filter === nativeFilter) return obj.filter(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results.push(value);
    });
    return results;
  };

  // Return all the elements for which a truth test fails.
  _.reject = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    return _.filter(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      return !iterator.call(context, value, index, list);
    }, context);
  };

  // Determine whether all of the elements match a truth test.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `every` if available.
  // Aliased as `all`.
  _.every = _.all = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
    var result = true;
    if (obj == null) return result;
    if (nativeEvery && obj.every === nativeEvery) return obj.every(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (!(result = result && iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
    });
    return !!result;
  };

  // Determine if at least one element in the object matches a truth test.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `some` if available.
  // Aliased as `any`.
  var any = _.some = _.any = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
    var result = false;
    if (obj == null) return result;
    if (nativeSome && obj.some === nativeSome) return obj.some(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (result || (result = iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
    });
    return !!result;
  };

  // Determine if the array or object contains a given value (using `===`).
  // Aliased as `include`.
  _.contains = _.include = function(obj, target) {
    if (obj == null) return false;
    if (nativeIndexOf && obj.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return obj.indexOf(target) != -1;
    return any(obj, function(value) {
      return value === target;
    });
  };

  // Invoke a method (with arguments) on every item in a collection.
  _.invoke = function(obj, method) {
    var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
    var isFunc = _.isFunction(method);
    return _.map(obj, function(value) {
      return (isFunc ? method : value[method]).apply(value, args);
    });
  };

  // Convenience version of a common use case of `map`: fetching a property.
  _.pluck = function(obj, key) {
    return _.map(obj, function(value){ return value[key]; });
  };

  // Convenience version of a common use case of `filter`: selecting only objects
  // containing specific `key:value` pairs.
  _.where = function(obj, attrs, first) {
    if (_.isEmpty(attrs)) return first ? void 0 : [];
    return _[first ? 'find' : 'filter'](obj, function(value) {
      for (var key in attrs) {
        if (attrs[key] !== value[key]) return false;
      }
      return true;
    });
  };

  // Convenience version of a common use case of `find`: getting the first object
  // containing specific `key:value` pairs.
  _.findWhere = function(obj, attrs) {
    return _.where(obj, attrs, true);
  };

  // Return the maximum element or (element-based computation).
  // Can't optimize arrays of integers longer than 65,535 elements.
  // See [WebKit Bug 80797](https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=80797)
  _.max = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0] && obj.length < 65535) {
      return Math.max.apply(Math, obj);
    }
    if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return -Infinity;
    var result = {computed : -Infinity, value: -Infinity};
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
      computed > result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
    });
    return result.value;
  };

  // Return the minimum element (or element-based computation).
  _.min = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0] && obj.length < 65535) {
      return Math.min.apply(Math, obj);
    }
    if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return Infinity;
    var result = {computed : Infinity, value: Infinity};
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
      computed < result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
    });
    return result.value;
  };

  // Shuffle an array, using the modern version of the 
  // [Fisher-Yates shuffle](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisher–Yates_shuffle).
  _.shuffle = function(obj) {
    var rand;
    var index = 0;
    var shuffled = [];
    each(obj, function(value) {
      rand = _.random(index++);
      shuffled[index - 1] = shuffled[rand];
      shuffled[rand] = value;
    });
    return shuffled;
  };

  // Sample **n** random values from an array.
  // If **n** is not specified, returns a single random element from the array.
  // The internal `guard` argument allows it to work with `map`.
  _.sample = function(obj, n, guard) {
    if (arguments.length < 2 || guard) {
      return obj[_.random(obj.length - 1)];
    }
    return _.shuffle(obj).slice(0, Math.max(0, n));
  };

  // An internal function to generate lookup iterators.
  var lookupIterator = function(value) {
    return _.isFunction(value) ? value : function(obj){ return obj[value]; };
  };

  // Sort the object's values by a criterion produced by an iterator.
  _.sortBy = function(obj, value, context) {
    var iterator = lookupIterator(value);
    return _.pluck(_.map(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      return {
        value: value,
        index: index,
        criteria: iterator.call(context, value, index, list)
      };
    }).sort(function(left, right) {
      var a = left.criteria;
      var b = right.criteria;
      if (a !== b) {
        if (a > b || a === void 0) return 1;
        if (a < b || b === void 0) return -1;
      }
      return left.index - right.index;
    }), 'value');
  };

  // An internal function used for aggregate "group by" operations.
  var group = function(behavior) {
    return function(obj, value, context) {
      var result = {};
      var iterator = value == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(value);
      each(obj, function(value, index) {
        var key = iterator.call(context, value, index, obj);
        behavior(result, key, value);
      });
      return result;
    };
  };

  // Groups the object's values by a criterion. Pass either a string attribute
  // to group by, or a function that returns the criterion.
  _.groupBy = group(function(result, key, value) {
    (_.has(result, key) ? result[key] : (result[key] = [])).push(value);
  });

  // Indexes the object's values by a criterion, similar to `groupBy`, but for
  // when you know that your index values will be unique.
  _.indexBy = group(function(result, key, value) {
    result[key] = value;
  });

  // Counts instances of an object that group by a certain criterion. Pass
  // either a string attribute to count by, or a function that returns the
  // criterion.
  _.countBy = group(function(result, key) {
    _.has(result, key) ? result[key]++ : result[key] = 1;
  });

  // Use a comparator function to figure out the smallest index at which
  // an object should be inserted so as to maintain order. Uses binary search.
  _.sortedIndex = function(array, obj, iterator, context) {
    iterator = iterator == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(iterator);
    var value = iterator.call(context, obj);
    var low = 0, high = array.length;
    while (low < high) {
      var mid = (low + high) >>> 1;
      iterator.call(context, array[mid]) < value ? low = mid + 1 : high = mid;
    }
    return low;
  };

  // Safely create a real, live array from anything iterable.
  _.toArray = function(obj) {
    if (!obj) return [];
    if (_.isArray(obj)) return slice.call(obj);
    if (obj.length === +obj.length) return _.map(obj, _.identity);
    return _.values(obj);
  };

  // Return the number of elements in an object.
  _.size = function(obj) {
    if (obj == null) return 0;
    return (obj.length === +obj.length) ? obj.length : _.keys(obj).length;
  };

  // Array Functions
  // ---------------

  // Get the first element of an array. Passing **n** will return the first N
  // values in the array. Aliased as `head` and `take`. The **guard** check
  // allows it to work with `_.map`.
  _.first = _.head = _.take = function(array, n, guard) {
    if (array == null) return void 0;
    return (n == null) || guard ? array[0] : slice.call(array, 0, n);
  };

  // Returns everything but the last entry of the array. Especially useful on
  // the arguments object. Passing **n** will return all the values in
  // the array, excluding the last N. The **guard** check allows it to work with
  // `_.map`.
  _.initial = function(array, n, guard) {
    return slice.call(array, 0, array.length - ((n == null) || guard ? 1 : n));
  };

  // Get the last element of an array. Passing **n** will return the last N
  // values in the array. The **guard** check allows it to work with `_.map`.
  _.last = function(array, n, guard) {
    if (array == null) return void 0;
    if ((n == null) || guard) {
      return array[array.length - 1];
    } else {
      return slice.call(array, Math.max(array.length - n, 0));
    }
  };

  // Returns everything but the first entry of the array. Aliased as `tail` and `drop`.
  // Especially useful on the arguments object. Passing an **n** will return
  // the rest N values in the array. The **guard**
  // check allows it to work with `_.map`.
  _.rest = _.tail = _.drop = function(array, n, guard) {
    return slice.call(array, (n == null) || guard ? 1 : n);
  };

  // Trim out all falsy values from an array.
  _.compact = function(array) {
    return _.filter(array, _.identity);
  };

  // Internal implementation of a recursive `flatten` function.
  var flatten = function(input, shallow, output) {
    if (shallow && _.every(input, _.isArray)) {
      return concat.apply(output, input);
    }
    each(input, function(value) {
      if (_.isArray(value) || _.isArguments(value)) {
        shallow ? push.apply(output, value) : flatten(value, shallow, output);
      } else {
        output.push(value);
      }
    });
    return output;
  };

  // Flatten out an array, either recursively (by default), or just one level.
  _.flatten = function(array, shallow) {
    return flatten(array, shallow, []);
  };

  // Return a version of the array that does not contain the specified value(s).
  _.without = function(array) {
    return _.difference(array, slice.call(arguments, 1));
  };

  // Produce a duplicate-free version of the array. If the array has already
  // been sorted, you have the option of using a faster algorithm.
  // Aliased as `unique`.
  _.uniq = _.unique = function(array, isSorted, iterator, context) {
    if (_.isFunction(isSorted)) {
      context = iterator;
      iterator = isSorted;
      isSorted = false;
    }
    var initial = iterator ? _.map(array, iterator, context) : array;
    var results = [];
    var seen = [];
    each(initial, function(value, index) {
      if (isSorted ? (!index || seen[seen.length - 1] !== value) : !_.contains(seen, value)) {
        seen.push(value);
        results.push(array[index]);
      }
    });
    return results;
  };

  // Produce an array that contains the union: each distinct element from all of
  // the passed-in arrays.
  _.union = function() {
    return _.uniq(_.flatten(arguments, true));
  };

  // Produce an array that contains every item shared between all the
  // passed-in arrays.
  _.intersection = function(array) {
    var rest = slice.call(arguments, 1);
    return _.filter(_.uniq(array), function(item) {
      return _.every(rest, function(other) {
        return _.indexOf(other, item) >= 0;
      });
    });
  };

  // Take the difference between one array and a number of other arrays.
  // Only the elements present in just the first array will remain.
  _.difference = function(array) {
    var rest = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !_.contains(rest, value); });
  };

  // Zip together multiple lists into a single array -- elements that share
  // an index go together.
  _.zip = function() {
    var length = _.max(_.pluck(arguments, "length").concat(0));
    var results = new Array(length);
    for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
      results[i] = _.pluck(arguments, '' + i);
    }
    return results;
  };

  // Converts lists into objects. Pass either a single array of `[key, value]`
  // pairs, or two parallel arrays of the same length -- one of keys, and one of
  // the corresponding values.
  _.object = function(list, values) {
    if (list == null) return {};
    var result = {};
    for (var i = 0, length = list.length; i < length; i++) {
      if (values) {
        result[list[i]] = values[i];
      } else {
        result[list[i][0]] = list[i][1];
      }
    }
    return result;
  };

  // If the browser doesn't supply us with indexOf (I'm looking at you, **MSIE**),
  // we need this function. Return the position of the first occurrence of an
  // item in an array, or -1 if the item is not included in the array.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `indexOf` if available.
  // If the array is large and already in sort order, pass `true`
  // for **isSorted** to use binary search.
  _.indexOf = function(array, item, isSorted) {
    if (array == null) return -1;
    var i = 0, length = array.length;
    if (isSorted) {
      if (typeof isSorted == 'number') {
        i = (isSorted < 0 ? Math.max(0, length + isSorted) : isSorted);
      } else {
        i = _.sortedIndex(array, item);
        return array[i] === item ? i : -1;
      }
    }
    if (nativeIndexOf && array.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return array.indexOf(item, isSorted);
    for (; i < length; i++) if (array[i] === item) return i;
    return -1;
  };

  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `lastIndexOf` if available.
  _.lastIndexOf = function(array, item, from) {
    if (array == null) return -1;
    var hasIndex = from != null;
    if (nativeLastIndexOf && array.lastIndexOf === nativeLastIndexOf) {
      return hasIndex ? array.lastIndexOf(item, from) : array.lastIndexOf(item);
    }
    var i = (hasIndex ? from : array.length);
    while (i--) if (array[i] === item) return i;
    return -1;
  };

  // Generate an integer Array containing an arithmetic progression. A port of
  // the native Python `range()` function. See
  // [the Python documentation](http://docs.python.org/library/functions.html#range).
  _.range = function(start, stop, step) {
    if (arguments.length <= 1) {
      stop = start || 0;
      start = 0;
    }
    step = arguments[2] || 1;

    var length = Math.max(Math.ceil((stop - start) / step), 0);
    var idx = 0;
    var range = new Array(length);

    while(idx < length) {
      range[idx++] = start;
      start += step;
    }

    return range;
  };

  // Function (ahem) Functions
  // ------------------

  // Reusable constructor function for prototype setting.
  var ctor = function(){};

  // Create a function bound to a given object (assigning `this`, and arguments,
  // optionally). Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Function.bind` if
  // available.
  _.bind = function(func, context) {
    var args, bound;
    if (nativeBind && func.bind === nativeBind) return nativeBind.apply(func, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    if (!_.isFunction(func)) throw new TypeError;
    args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
    return bound = function() {
      if (!(this instanceof bound)) return func.apply(context, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
      ctor.prototype = func.prototype;
      var self = new ctor;
      ctor.prototype = null;
      var result = func.apply(self, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
      if (Object(result) === result) return result;
      return self;
    };
  };

  // Partially apply a function by creating a version that has had some of its
  // arguments pre-filled, without changing its dynamic `this` context.
  _.partial = function(func) {
    var args = slice.call(arguments, 1);
    return function() {
      return func.apply(this, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
    };
  };

  // Bind all of an object's methods to that object. Useful for ensuring that
  // all callbacks defined on an object belong to it.
  _.bindAll = function(obj) {
    var funcs = slice.call(arguments, 1);
    if (funcs.length === 0) throw new Error("bindAll must be passed function names");
    each(funcs, function(f) { obj[f] = _.bind(obj[f], obj); });
    return obj;
  };

  // Memoize an expensive function by storing its results.
  _.memoize = function(func, hasher) {
    var memo = {};
    hasher || (hasher = _.identity);
    return function() {
      var key = hasher.apply(this, arguments);
      return _.has(memo, key) ? memo[key] : (memo[key] = func.apply(this, arguments));
    };
  };

  // Delays a function for the given number of milliseconds, and then calls
  // it with the arguments supplied.
  _.delay = function(func, wait) {
    var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
    return setTimeout(function(){ return func.apply(null, args); }, wait);
  };

  // Defers a function, scheduling it to run after the current call stack has
  // cleared.
  _.defer = function(func) {
    return _.delay.apply(_, [func, 1].concat(slice.call(arguments, 1)));
  };

  // Returns a function, that, when invoked, will only be triggered at most once
  // during a given window of time. Normally, the throttled function will run
  // as much as it can, without ever going more than once per `wait` duration;
  // but if you'd like to disable the execution on the leading edge, pass
  // `{leading: false}`. To disable execution on the trailing edge, ditto.
  _.throttle = function(func, wait, options) {
    var context, args, result;
    var timeout = null;
    var previous = 0;
    options || (options = {});
    var later = function() {
      previous = options.leading === false ? 0 : new Date;
      timeout = null;
      result = func.apply(context, args);
    };
    return function() {
      var now = new Date;
      if (!previous && options.leading === false) previous = now;
      var remaining = wait - (now - previous);
      context = this;
      args = arguments;
      if (remaining <= 0) {
        clearTimeout(timeout);
        timeout = null;
        previous = now;
        result = func.apply(context, args);
      } else if (!timeout && options.trailing !== false) {
        timeout = setTimeout(later, remaining);
      }
      return result;
    };
  };

  // Returns a function, that, as long as it continues to be invoked, will not
  // be triggered. The function will be called after it stops being called for
  // N milliseconds. If `immediate` is passed, trigger the function on the
  // leading edge, instead of the trailing.
  _.debounce = function(func, wait, immediate) {
    var timeout, args, context, timestamp, result;
    return function() {
      context = this;
      args = arguments;
      timestamp = new Date();
      var later = function() {
        var last = (new Date()) - timestamp;
        if (last < wait) {
          timeout = setTimeout(later, wait - last);
        } else {
          timeout = null;
          if (!immediate) result = func.apply(context, args);
        }
      };
      var callNow = immediate && !timeout;
      if (!timeout) {
        timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
      }
      if (callNow) result = func.apply(context, args);
      return result;
    };
  };

  // Returns a function that will be executed at most one time, no matter how
  // often you call it. Useful for lazy initialization.
  _.once = function(func) {
    var ran = false, memo;
    return function() {
      if (ran) return memo;
      ran = true;
      memo = func.apply(this, arguments);
      func = null;
      return memo;
    };
  };

  // Returns the first function passed as an argument to the second,
  // allowing you to adjust arguments, run code before and after, and
  // conditionally execute the original function.
  _.wrap = function(func, wrapper) {
    return function() {
      var args = [func];
      push.apply(args, arguments);
      return wrapper.apply(this, args);
    };
  };

  // Returns a function that is the composition of a list of functions, each
  // consuming the return value of the function that follows.
  _.compose = function() {
    var funcs = arguments;
    return function() {
      var args = arguments;
      for (var i = funcs.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
        args = [funcs[i].apply(this, args)];
      }
      return args[0];
    };
  };

  // Returns a function that will only be executed after being called N times.
  _.after = function(times, func) {
    return function() {
      if (--times < 1) {
        return func.apply(this, arguments);
      }
    };
  };

  // Object Functions
  // ----------------

  // Retrieve the names of an object's properties.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Object.keys`
  _.keys = nativeKeys || function(obj) {
    if (obj !== Object(obj)) throw new TypeError('Invalid object');
    var keys = [];
    for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) keys.push(key);
    return keys;
  };

  // Retrieve the values of an object's properties.
  _.values = function(obj) {
    var keys = _.keys(obj);
    var length = keys.length;
    var values = new Array(length);
    for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
      values[i] = obj[keys[i]];
    }
    return values;
  };

  // Convert an object into a list of `[key, value]` pairs.
  _.pairs = function(obj) {
    var keys = _.keys(obj);
    var length = keys.length;
    var pairs = new Array(length);
    for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
      pairs[i] = [keys[i], obj[keys[i]]];
    }
    return pairs;
  };

  // Invert the keys and values of an object. The values must be serializable.
  _.invert = function(obj) {
    var result = {};
    var keys = _.keys(obj);
    for (var i = 0, length = keys.length; i < length; i++) {
      result[obj[keys[i]]] = keys[i];
    }
    return result;
  };

  // Return a sorted list of the function names available on the object.
  // Aliased as `methods`
  _.functions = _.methods = function(obj) {
    var names = [];
    for (var key in obj) {
      if (_.isFunction(obj[key])) names.push(key);
    }
    return names.sort();
  };

  // Extend a given object with all the properties in passed-in object(s).
  _.extend = function(obj) {
    each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
      if (source) {
        for (var prop in source) {
          obj[prop] = source[prop];
        }
      }
    });
    return obj;
  };

  // Return a copy of the object only containing the whitelisted properties.
  _.pick = function(obj) {
    var copy = {};
    var keys = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    each(keys, function(key) {
      if (key in obj) copy[key] = obj[key];
    });
    return copy;
  };

   // Return a copy of the object without the blacklisted properties.
  _.omit = function(obj) {
    var copy = {};
    var keys = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    for (var key in obj) {
      if (!_.contains(keys, key)) copy[key] = obj[key];
    }
    return copy;
  };

  // Fill in a given object with default properties.
  _.defaults = function(obj) {
    each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
      if (source) {
        for (var prop in source) {
          if (obj[prop] === void 0) obj[prop] = source[prop];
        }
      }
    });
    return obj;
  };

  // Create a (shallow-cloned) duplicate of an object.
  _.clone = function(obj) {
    if (!_.isObject(obj)) return obj;
    return _.isArray(obj) ? obj.slice() : _.extend({}, obj);
  };

  // Invokes interceptor with the obj, and then returns obj.
  // The primary purpose of this method is to "tap into" a method chain, in
  // order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.
  _.tap = function(obj, interceptor) {
    interceptor(obj);
    return obj;
  };

  // Internal recursive comparison function for `isEqual`.
  var eq = function(a, b, aStack, bStack) {
    // Identical objects are equal. `0 === -0`, but they aren't identical.
    // See the [Harmony `egal` proposal](http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php?id=harmony:egal).
    if (a === b) return a !== 0 || 1 / a == 1 / b;
    // A strict comparison is necessary because `null == undefined`.
    if (a == null || b == null) return a === b;
    // Unwrap any wrapped objects.
    if (a instanceof _) a = a._wrapped;
    if (b instanceof _) b = b._wrapped;
    // Compare `[[Class]]` names.
    var className = toString.call(a);
    if (className != toString.call(b)) return false;
    switch (className) {
      // Strings, numbers, dates, and booleans are compared by value.
      case '[object String]':
        // Primitives and their corresponding object wrappers are equivalent; thus, `"5"` is
        // equivalent to `new String("5")`.
        return a == String(b);
      case '[object Number]':
        // `NaN`s are equivalent, but non-reflexive. An `egal` comparison is performed for
        // other numeric values.
        return a != +a ? b != +b : (a == 0 ? 1 / a == 1 / b : a == +b);
      case '[object Date]':
      case '[object Boolean]':
        // Coerce dates and booleans to numeric primitive values. Dates are compared by their
        // millisecond representations. Note that invalid dates with millisecond representations
        // of `NaN` are not equivalent.
        return +a == +b;
      // RegExps are compared by their source patterns and flags.
      case '[object RegExp]':
        return a.source == b.source &&
               a.global == b.global &&
               a.multiline == b.multiline &&
               a.ignoreCase == b.ignoreCase;
    }
    if (typeof a != 'object' || typeof b != 'object') return false;
    // Assume equality for cyclic structures. The algorithm for detecting cyclic
    // structures is adapted from ES 5.1 section 15.12.3, abstract operation `JO`.
    var length = aStack.length;
    while (length--) {
      // Linear search. Performance is inversely proportional to the number of
      // unique nested structures.
      if (aStack[length] == a) return bStack[length] == b;
    }
    // Objects with different constructors are not equivalent, but `Object`s
    // from different frames are.
    var aCtor = a.constructor, bCtor = b.constructor;
    if (aCtor !== bCtor && !(_.isFunction(aCtor) && (aCtor instanceof aCtor) &&
                             _.isFunction(bCtor) && (bCtor instanceof bCtor))) {
      return false;
    }
    // Add the first object to the stack of traversed objects.
    aStack.push(a);
    bStack.push(b);
    var size = 0, result = true;
    // Recursively compare objects and arrays.
    if (className == '[object Array]') {
      // Compare array lengths to determine if a deep comparison is necessary.
      size = a.length;
      result = size == b.length;
      if (result) {
        // Deep compare the contents, ignoring non-numeric properties.
        while (size--) {
          if (!(result = eq(a[size], b[size], aStack, bStack))) break;
        }
      }
    } else {
      // Deep compare objects.
      for (var key in a) {
        if (_.has(a, key)) {
          // Count the expected number of properties.
          size++;
          // Deep compare each member.
          if (!(result = _.has(b, key) && eq(a[key], b[key], aStack, bStack))) break;
        }
      }
      // Ensure that both objects contain the same number of properties.
      if (result) {
        for (key in b) {
          if (_.has(b, key) && !(size--)) break;
        }
        result = !size;
      }
    }
    // Remove the first object from the stack of traversed objects.
    aStack.pop();
    bStack.pop();
    return result;
  };

  // Perform a deep comparison to check if two objects are equal.
  _.isEqual = function(a, b) {
    return eq(a, b, [], []);
  };

  // Is a given array, string, or object empty?
  // An "empty" object has no enumerable own-properties.
  _.isEmpty = function(obj) {
    if (obj == null) return true;
    if (_.isArray(obj) || _.isString(obj)) return obj.length === 0;
    for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) return false;
    return true;
  };

  // Is a given value a DOM element?
  _.isElement = function(obj) {
    return !!(obj && obj.nodeType === 1);
  };

  // Is a given value an array?
  // Delegates to ECMA5's native Array.isArray
  _.isArray = nativeIsArray || function(obj) {
    return toString.call(obj) == '[object Array]';
  };

  // Is a given variable an object?
  _.isObject = function(obj) {
    return obj === Object(obj);
  };

  // Add some isType methods: isArguments, isFunction, isString, isNumber, isDate, isRegExp.
  each(['Arguments', 'Function', 'String', 'Number', 'Date', 'RegExp'], function(name) {
    _['is' + name] = function(obj) {
      return toString.call(obj) == '[object ' + name + ']';
    };
  });

  // Define a fallback version of the method in browsers (ahem, IE), where
  // there isn't any inspectable "Arguments" type.
  if (!_.isArguments(arguments)) {
    _.isArguments = function(obj) {
      return !!(obj && _.has(obj, 'callee'));
    };
  }

  // Optimize `isFunction` if appropriate.
  if (typeof (/./) !== 'function') {
    _.isFunction = function(obj) {
      return typeof obj === 'function';
    };
  }

  // Is a given object a finite number?
  _.isFinite = function(obj) {
    return isFinite(obj) && !isNaN(parseFloat(obj));
  };

  // Is the given value `NaN`? (NaN is the only number which does not equal itself).
  _.isNaN = function(obj) {
    return _.isNumber(obj) && obj != +obj;
  };

  // Is a given value a boolean?
  _.isBoolean = function(obj) {
    return obj === true || obj === false || toString.call(obj) == '[object Boolean]';
  };

  // Is a given value equal to null?
  _.isNull = function(obj) {
    return obj === null;
  };

  // Is a given variable undefined?
  _.isUndefined = function(obj) {
    return obj === void 0;
  };

  // Shortcut function for checking if an object has a given property directly
  // on itself (in other words, not on a prototype).
  _.has = function(obj, key) {
    return hasOwnProperty.call(obj, key);
  };

  // Utility Functions
  // -----------------

  // Run Underscore.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `_` variable to its
  // previous owner. Returns a reference to the Underscore object.
  _.noConflict = function() {
    root._ = previousUnderscore;
    return this;
  };

  // Keep the identity function around for default iterators.
  _.identity = function(value) {
    return value;
  };

  // Run a function **n** times.
  _.times = function(n, iterator, context) {
    var accum = Array(Math.max(0, n));
    for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) accum[i] = iterator.call(context, i);
    return accum;
  };

  // Return a random integer between min and max (inclusive).
  _.random = function(min, max) {
    if (max == null) {
      max = min;
      min = 0;
    }
    return min + Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1));
  };

  // List of HTML entities for escaping.
  var entityMap = {
    escape: {
      '&': '&amp;',
      '<': '&lt;',
      '>': '&gt;',
      '"': '&quot;',
      "'": '&#x27;'
    }
  };
  entityMap.unescape = _.invert(entityMap.escape);

  // Regexes containing the keys and values listed immediately above.
  var entityRegexes = {
    escape:   new RegExp('[' + _.keys(entityMap.escape).join('') + ']', 'g'),
    unescape: new RegExp('(' + _.keys(entityMap.unescape).join('|') + ')', 'g')
  };

  // Functions for escaping and unescaping strings to/from HTML interpolation.
  _.each(['escape', 'unescape'], function(method) {
    _[method] = function(string) {
      if (string == null) return '';
      return ('' + string).replace(entityRegexes[method], function(match) {
        return entityMap[method][match];
      });
    };
  });

  // If the value of the named `property` is a function then invoke it with the
  // `object` as context; otherwise, return it.
  _.result = function(object, property) {
    if (object == null) return void 0;
    var value = object[property];
    return _.isFunction(value) ? value.call(object) : value;
  };

  // Add your own custom functions to the Underscore object.
  _.mixin = function(obj) {
    each(_.functions(obj), function(name) {
      var func = _[name] = obj[name];
      _.prototype[name] = function() {
        var args = [this._wrapped];
        push.apply(args, arguments);
        return result.call(this, func.apply(_, args));
      };
    });
  };

  // Generate a unique integer id (unique within the entire client session).
  // Useful for temporary DOM ids.
  var idCounter = 0;
  _.uniqueId = function(prefix) {
    var id = ++idCounter + '';
    return prefix ? prefix + id : id;
  };

  // By default, Underscore uses ERB-style template delimiters, change the
  // following template settings to use alternative delimiters.
  _.templateSettings = {
    evaluate    : /<%([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
    interpolate : /<%=([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
    escape      : /<%-([\s\S]+?)%>/g
  };

  // When customizing `templateSettings`, if you don't want to define an
  // interpolation, evaluation or escaping regex, we need one that is
  // guaranteed not to match.
  var noMatch = /(.)^/;

  // Certain characters need to be escaped so that they can be put into a
  // string literal.
  var escapes = {
    "'":      "'",
    '\\':     '\\',
    '\r':     'r',
    '\n':     'n',
    '\t':     't',
    '\u2028': 'u2028',
    '\u2029': 'u2029'
  };

  var escaper = /\\|'|\r|\n|\t|\u2028|\u2029/g;

  // JavaScript micro-templating, similar to John Resig's implementation.
  // Underscore templating handles arbitrary delimiters, preserves whitespace,
  // and correctly escapes quotes within interpolated code.
  _.template = function(text, data, settings) {
    var render;
    settings = _.defaults({}, settings, _.templateSettings);

    // Combine delimiters into one regular expression via alternation.
    var matcher = new RegExp([
      (settings.escape || noMatch).source,
      (settings.interpolate || noMatch).source,
      (settings.evaluate || noMatch).source
    ].join('|') + '|$', 'g');

    // Compile the template source, escaping string literals appropriately.
    var index = 0;
    var source = "__p+='";
    text.replace(matcher, function(match, escape, interpolate, evaluate, offset) {
      source += text.slice(index, offset)
        .replace(escaper, function(match) { return '\\' + escapes[match]; });

      if (escape) {
        source += "'+\n((__t=(" + escape + "))==null?'':_.escape(__t))+\n'";
      }
      if (interpolate) {
        source += "'+\n((__t=(" + interpolate + "))==null?'':__t)+\n'";
      }
      if (evaluate) {
        source += "';\n" + evaluate + "\n__p+='";
      }
      index = offset + match.length;
      return match;
    });
    source += "';\n";

    // If a variable is not specified, place data values in local scope.
    if (!settings.variable) source = 'with(obj||{}){\n' + source + '}\n';

    source = "var __t,__p='',__j=Array.prototype.join," +
      "print=function(){__p+=__j.call(arguments,'');};\n" +
      source + "return __p;\n";

    try {
      render = new Function(settings.variable || 'obj', '_', source);
    } catch (e) {
      e.source = source;
      throw e;
    }

    if (data) return render(data, _);
    var template = function(data) {
      return render.call(this, data, _);
    };

    // Provide the compiled function source as a convenience for precompilation.
    template.source = 'function(' + (settings.variable || 'obj') + '){\n' + source + '}';

    return template;
  };

  // Add a "chain" function, which will delegate to the wrapper.
  _.chain = function(obj) {
    return _(obj).chain();
  };

  // OOP
  // ---------------
  // If Underscore is called as a function, it returns a wrapped object that
  // can be used OO-style. This wrapper holds altered versions of all the
  // underscore functions. Wrapped objects may be chained.

  // Helper function to continue chaining intermediate results.
  var result = function(obj) {
    return this._chain ? _(obj).chain() : obj;
  };

  // Add all of the Underscore functions to the wrapper object.
  _.mixin(_);

  // Add all mutator Array functions to the wrapper.
  each(['pop', 'push', 'reverse', 'shift', 'sort', 'splice', 'unshift'], function(name) {
    var method = ArrayProto[name];
    _.prototype[name] = function() {
      var obj = this._wrapped;
      method.apply(obj, arguments);
      if ((name == 'shift' || name == 'splice') && obj.length === 0) delete obj[0];
      return result.call(this, obj);
    };
  });

  // Add all accessor Array functions to the wrapper.
  each(['concat', 'join', 'slice'], function(name) {
    var method = ArrayProto[name];
    _.prototype[name] = function() {
      return result.call(this, method.apply(this._wrapped, arguments));
    };
  });

  _.extend(_.prototype, {

    // Start chaining a wrapped Underscore object.
    chain: function() {
      this._chain = true;
      return this;
    },

    // Extracts the result from a wrapped and chained object.
    value: function() {
      return this._wrapped;
    }

  });

}).call(this);

first sentence

(function(){}).call(this)

that's anonymous function , and immediately-invoked function expression, that's the same fellow:
(function(){})(this)
(function(){}(this))
+fucntion(){}(this)
void funtion(){}(this)

and so on, you know javascript is an weekly type languge, then, use immediately-invoed function expression could encapsulation pragrammging API;

// Baseline setup
// --------------

// Establish the root object, `window` in the browser, or `exports` on the server.
var root = this;

// Save the previous value of the `_` variable.
var previousUnderscore = root._;

// Establish the object that gets returned to break out of a loop iteration.
var breaker = {};

// Save bytes in the minified (but not gzipped) version:
var ArrayProto = Array.prototype, ObjProto = Object.prototype, FuncProto = Function.prototype;

// Create quick reference variables for speed access to core prototypes.
var
  push             = ArrayProto.push,
  slice            = ArrayProto.slice,
  concat           = ArrayProto.concat,
  toString         = ObjProto.toString,
  hasOwnProperty   = ObjProto.hasOwnProperty;

// All **ECMAScript 5** native function implementations that we hope to use
// are declared here.
var
  nativeForEach      = ArrayProto.forEach,
  nativeMap          = ArrayProto.map,
  nativeReduce       = ArrayProto.reduce,
  nativeReduceRight  = ArrayProto.reduceRight,
  nativeFilter       = ArrayProto.filter,
  nativeEvery        = ArrayProto.every,
  nativeSome         = ArrayProto.some,
  nativeIndexOf      = ArrayProto.indexOf,
  nativeLastIndexOf  = ArrayProto.lastIndexOf,
  nativeIsArray      = Array.isArray,
  nativeKeys         = Object.keys,
  nativeBind         = FuncProto.bind;

next establish the root object;

// All **ECMAScript 5** native function implementations that we hope to use
// are declared here.
var
  nativeForEach      = ArrayProto.forEach,
  nativeMap          = ArrayProto.map,
  nativeReduce       = ArrayProto.reduce,
  nativeReduceRight  = ArrayProto.reduceRight,
  nativeFilter       = ArrayProto.filter,
  nativeEvery        = ArrayProto.every,
  nativeSome         = ArrayProto.some,
  nativeIndexOf      = ArrayProto.indexOf,
  nativeLastIndexOf  = ArrayProto.lastIndexOf,
  nativeIsArray      = Array.isArray,
  nativeKeys         = Object.keys,
  nativeBind         = FuncProto.bind;

here, Jeremy Ashkenas make a list of ECMAScript 5 native function implementations,if browser or 'exports' support it ,we did direct use it;

// Create a safe reference to the Underscore object for use below.
var _ = function(obj) {
  if (obj instanceof _) return obj;
  if (!(this instanceof _)) return new _(obj);
  this._wrapped = obj;
};

this code use for create a safe reference object, in other way,that's create new object or constructor,

_ = window._;
var _=function(obj){
    if(obj instanceof _) {
        return obj;
    }
    if(!(this instanceof _)){ 
        return new _(obj);
    }
    this._richard = obj;    
}

console.log("1:", _(), "2:",_(_), "3:",_(1), "4:",_('richard'), "5:",_(Object), "6:",_(Object()), "7:",_(new     Object()), "8:",_(Function));// _ {_richard: undefined} 2: 
_ {_richard: function}
 3: _ {_richard: 1} 4: _ {_richard: "richard"} 5: 
_ {_richard: function}
 6: 
_ {_richard: Object}
 7: 
_ {_richard: Object}
 8: 
_ {_richard: function}



    var a = function(){ this.name = 'richardong';}
    console.log(new a, new a(),a.prototype, a.prototype.constructor, new a.prototype.constructor, new a.prototype.constructor())
    //a {name: "richardong"} a {name: "richardong"} Object {} function (){ this.name = 'richardong';} a {name: "richardong"} a {name: "richardong"}

is that clear?

next

var each = _.each = _.forEach = function(obj, iterator, context) {
  if (obj == null) return;
  if (nativeForEach && obj.forEach === nativeForEach && false) {
    obj.forEach(iterator, context);
  } else if (obj.length === +obj.length) {
    for (var i = 0, length = obj.length; i < length; i++) {
      if (iterator.call(context, obj[i], i, obj) === breaker) return;
    }
  } else {
    var keys = _.keys(obj);
    for (var i = 0, length = keys.length; i < length; i++) {
      if (iterator.call(context, obj[keys[i]], keys[i], obj) === breaker) return;
    }
  }
};

you know,

if (nativeForEach && obj.forEach === nativeForEach && false) {
      obj.forEach(iterator, context);
    } 

is use for "Delegates to ECMAScript 5's native forEach if available." if native forEach available

borrow native method,

else if (obj.length === +obj.length) {
          for (var i = 0, length = obj.length; i < length; i++) {
            if (iterator.call(context, obj[i], i, obj) === breaker) return;
          }
        }

delegates to pass into arguments object 'length' if available,cos that's not every obj has 'length properity, for example:

var a = {aa: 'richard', bb:'bbbbbb'},
                b = ['aa', 'bb'];
console.log(a.length, a.length === +a.length, b.length, b.length === +b.length)//undefined false 2 true 

else will use bellow sentance to deal with it

else {
          var keys = _.keys(obj);
          for (var i = 0, length = keys.length; i < length; i++) {
            if (iterator.call(context, obj[keys[i]], keys[i], obj) === breaker) return;
          }

ok, next method:

_.map = _.collect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
  var results = [];
  if (obj == null) return results;
  if (nativeMap && obj.map === nativeMap) return obj.map(iterator, context);
  each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    results.push(iterator.call(context, value, index, list));
  });
  return results;
};

here

if (nativeMap && obj.map === nativeMap) return obj.map(iterator, context);

Delegates to ECMAScript 5's native map if available, just borrow native method, else use bellow :

each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
  results.push(iterator.call(context, value, index, list));
});

return "results",then implement in the same as native 'filter' function, but _.filter() method more compatibility;

next:

_.reduce = _.foldl = _.inject = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
  var initial = arguments.length > 2;
  if (obj == null) obj = [];
  if (nativeReduce && obj.reduce === nativeReduce) {
    if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
    return initial ? obj.reduce(iterator, memo) : obj.reduce(iterator);
  }
  each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    if (!initial) {
      memo = value;
      initial = true;
    } else {
      memo = iterator.call(context, memo, value, index, list);
    }
  });
  if (!initial) throw new TypeError(reduceError);
  return memo;
};

note this " var initial = arguments.length > 2;", here use for detegates user if pass into arguments more then two; if native reduce() not availible use bellow:

each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
  if (!initial) {
    memo = value;
    initial = true;
  } else {
    memo = iterator.call(context, memo, value, index, list);
  }
});

literated obj and simulated native reduce() method

if (!initial) throw new TypeError(reduceError);

this,sentance, that's in case pass empty,null,or , undefined obj, you know in _.each method if

if (obj == null) return;

so, you pass empty obj _.each() method direct return and native reduce is not availble ,then, the pragramming would continuce execute to
if (!initial) throw new TypeError(reduceError);

pragramming stop;

next:

var any = _.some = _.any = function(obj, iterator, context) {
  iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
  var result = false;
  if (obj == null) return result;
  if (nativeSome && obj.some === nativeSome) return obj.some(iterator, context);
  each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    if (result || (result = iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
  });
  return !!result;
};


// Return the first value which passes a truth test. Aliased as `detect`.
_.find = _.detect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
  var result;
  any(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) {
      result = value;
      return true;
    }
  });
  return result;
};

underscorcejs, _.find() implementation rationale: use any() iterator obj, and if iterator.call(context, value, index, list) return true, then result = value;

_.filter = _.select = function(obj, iterator, context) {
  var results = [];
  if (obj == null) return results;
  if (nativeFilter && obj.filter === nativeFilter) return obj.filter(iterator, context);
  each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results.push(value);
  });
  return results;
};

that's simple, no explain,
next:

_.reject = function(obj, iterator, context) {
  return _.filter(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    return !iterator.call(context, value, index, list);
  }, context);
};

_.reject() method was used for return all the elements which truth test fails:

!iterator.call(context, value, index, list);

use this sentance to get fail test result;

next:

_.identity = function(value) {
  return value;
};
_.every = _.all = function(obj, iterator, context) {
  iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
  var result = true;
  if (obj == null) return result;
  if (nativeEvery && obj.every === nativeEvery) return obj.every(iterator, context);
  each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    if (!(result = result && iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
  });
  return !!result;
};

but in underscorejs document said:
**
every_.every(list, [iterator], [context]) Alias: all
Returns true if all of the values in the list pass the iterator truth test. Delegates to the native method every, if present.

_.every([true, 1, null, 'yes'], _.identity);
=> false

**

you can try this:

console.log(_.every([], function(num){
    console.log('what:',num);
    return num;
}, null));//true 
console.log([].every(function(num){
        console.log('what:',num);
    return  num;
}, null, null))//true 

console.log(_.every({}, function(num){
return num;
}));true
console.log([].every(function(num){
return num;
}))//true
in above example, obviously array is empty, why did he return true?,is that native every original has this bug?, sorry,i don't know...,
ok , here we go,

_.contains = _.include = function(obj, target) {
  if (obj == null) return false;
  if (nativeIndexOf && obj.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return obj.indexOf(target) != -1;
  return any(obj, function(value) {
    return value === target;
  });
};

that's easy to comprehension

if (nativeIndexOf && obj.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return obj.indexOf(target) != -1;

deletgates if native indexOf() availible return boolean value;
you know "{}" object has no method 'indexOf';

var a = [1, 2, 3];
var b = {a: 'richard', b:'search'};

console.log(a.indexOf(4), _.contains(b, 'richard'));//-1 true 

ok, next:

_.invoke = function(obj, method) {
  var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
  var isFunc = _.isFunction(method);
  return _.map(obj, function(value) {
    return (isFunc ? method : value[method]).apply(value, args);
  });
};

what the _.invoke() method and _.map() method difference? in my eyes , i think that's almost in the same, they are return new Array, iterated iterator; and diffence just the _.invoke() the third arguments is the second argurments arguments;

ok, next one:

_.pluck = function(obj, key) {
  return _.map(obj, function(value){ return value[key]; });
};

in this source, i can know, _.pluck just pluck Array internal object,for example:

var stooges = [{name: 'moe', age: 40}, {name: 'larry', age: 50}, {name: 'curly', age: 60}];
_.pluck(stooges, 'name');// ["moe", "larry", "curly"]


var stooges = {a:{name: 'moe', age: 40}};

console.log(_.pluck(stooges, 'a'));//    [undefined] 

next one,

_.where = function(obj, attrs, first) {
  if (_.isEmpty(attrs)) return first ? void 0 : [];
  return _[first ? 'find' : 'filter'](obj, function(value) {
    for (var key in attrs) {
      if (attrs[key] !== value[key]) return false;
    }
    return true;
  });
};

here lightspot:

return _[first ? 'find' : 'filter'](obj, function(value) 

he did use square brackets to access "_" object's 'find or filter' method, that's very interesting

next

  _.max = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0] && obj.length < 65535) {
      return Math.max.apply(Math, obj);
    }
    if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return -Infinity;
    var result = {computed : -Infinity, value: -Infinity};
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
      computed > result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
    });
    return result.value;
  };


var stooges = [{name: 'moe', age: 40}, {name: 'larry', age: 50}, {name: 'curly', age: 60}];
console.log(_.max(stooges, function(stooge){ return stooge.age; }));    //Object {name: "curly", age: 60} 

note bellow:
computed > result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});

that's core logic for "Return the maximum element or (element-based computation)."

next:

_.shuffle = function(obj) {
  var rand;
  var index = 0;
  var shuffled = [];
  each(obj, function(value) {
    rand = _.random(index++);
    shuffled[index - 1] = shuffled[rand];
    shuffled[rand] = value;
  });
  return shuffled;
};

    // Return a random integer between min and max (inclusive).
    _.random = function(min, max) {
      if (max == null) {
        max = min;
        min = 0;
      }
      return min + Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1));
    };

_.shuffle() method things like random(), that's alway return random order obj;
ok, let's try it:

var     myrandom = function(min, max) {
            if (max == null) {
                    max = min;
                    min = 0;
            }
            return min + Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1));
    };
myshuffle = function(obj){
        var index = 0,
                        shuffled = [];
                        obj.forEach(function(value){
                            var rand = myrandom(index++);
                            var v = shuffled[rand];
                            shuffled[index - 1] = v;
                            shuffled[rand] = value;
                        });
                        return shuffled;
}
console.log(myshuffle(['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e']));

that's in the same effect
they core logic is:
var v = shuffled[rand];
shuffled[index - 1] = v;
shuffled[rand] = value;

they use shuffled[index - 1] = shuffled[rand] set new value and change same value, for example:

var     myrandom = function(min, max) {
            if (max == null) {
                    max = min;
                    min = 0;
            }
            return min + Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1));
    };
myshuffle = function(obj){
        var index = 0,
                        shuffled = [];
                        obj.forEach(function(value){
                            index++;
                            shuffled[index - 1] = shuffled[0];
                            shuffled[0] = value;
                        });
                        return shuffled;
}
console.log(myshuffle(['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e']));

is that clear?

next:

// An internal function used for aggregate "group by" operations.
var group = function(behavior) {
  return function(obj, value, context) {
    var result = {};
    var iterator = value == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(value);
    each(obj, function(value, index) {
      var key = iterator.call(context, value, index, obj);
      behavior(result, key, value);
    });
    return result;
  };
};

// Groups the object's values by a criterion. Pass either a string attribute
// to group by, or a function that returns the criterion.
_.groupBy = group(function(result, key, value) {
  (_.has(result, key) ? result[key] : (result[key] = [])).push(value);
});

that's Jeremy Ashkenas another genius copywriter:that's,

(_.has(result, key) ? result[key] : (result[key] = [])).push(value);

let's me try:

var test = [];
for(var i = 0; i < 10; i++){
                (test[i] = []).push(i)
}

console.log(JSON.stringify(test));//[[0],[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]]       Double Dimensional Array


    var test = [];
        for(var i = 0; i < 10; i++){
                        ((test[i] = [])[i] = []).push([i])
        }


    console.log(JSON.stringify(test));//[[[[0]]],[null,[[1]]],[null,null,[[2]]],[null,null,null,[[3]]],[null,null,null,null,[[4]]],[null,null,null,null,null,[[5]]],[null,null,null,null,null,null,[[6]]],[null,null,null,null,null,null,null,[[7]]],[null,null,null,null,null,null,null,null,[[8]]],[null,null,null,null,null,null,null,null,null,[[9]]]]      //Four dimensional array

next:

_.sortedIndex = function(array, obj, iterator, context) {
  iterator = iterator == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(iterator);
  var value = iterator.call(context, obj);
  var low = 0, high = array.length;
  while (low < high) {
    var mid = (low + high) >>> 1;
    iterator.call(context, array[mid]) < value ? low = mid + 1 : high = mid;
  }
  return low;
};

let's me try:

parseInt(99.9/2) === 99.9>>>1  //true
parseInt(99/2) === 99>>>1    //true
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10820

Better us lodash nowadays (https://github.com/lodash/lodash), it's a faster and modular drop in replacement to underscore.

over 1 year ago ·
10854
Psb  1

that's great.

over 1 year ago ·